Democracy india and pakistan relationship

India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia

democracy india and pakistan relationship

It argues that India-Pakistan relationship doesn't lend itself to the democratic peace thesis, trade-brings-peace theory, multilateralism and international regimes. The difference appears to be a culture of democracy that has evolved in India over the last 57 years, while in Pakistan, democracy remains. India, Pakistan, and Democracy: Solving democracy to Hinduism and Pakistan's . ties. The situation started to change during the Bhutto administration.

In Decemberfollowing a political crisis in East Pakistan, the situation soon spiralled out of control in East Pakistan and India intervened in favour of the rebelling Bengali populace.

The conflict, a brief but bloody war, resulted in the independence of East Pakistan. The war saw the first offensive operations undertaken by the Indian Navy against an enemy port, when Karachi harbour was attacked twice during Operation Trident and Operation Python. These attacks destroyed a significant portion of Pakistan's naval strength, whereas no Indian ship was lost. After the surrender of Pakistani forces, East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh.

Kargil War Main article: Kargil War During the winter months ofthe Indian army vacated its posts at very high peaks in Kargil sector in Kashmir as it used to do every year. Pakistani Army intruded across the line of control and occupied the posts.

Indian army discovered this in May when the snow thawed. This resulted in intense fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces, known as the Kargil conflict. Pakistan later withdrew from the remaining portion under international pressure and high casualties. Other territorial claims You can help by adding to it. March The relations are locked in other territorial claims such as the Siachen Glacier and Kori Creek.

Water is cited as one possible cause for a conflict between the two nations, but to date issues such as the Nimoo Bazgo Project have been resolved through diplomacy. East Bengali refugees InIndia recorded close to 1 million Hindu refugees, who flooded into West Bengal and other states from East Pakistan now Bangladeshowing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from authorities.

India - Pakistan

The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, which were unable to absorb them. Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions.

democracy india and pakistan relationship

Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral conflicts through peaceful means. Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to East Pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the Kashmir conflict.

Afghanistan—India relations and Afghanistan—Pakistan relations Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Linewhich numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border. This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontationsresulting in Pakistan as victorious.

  • No country for civilians: Pakistan's democracy is at its military's mercy

Pakistan has long accused Afghanistan of harboring Baloch separatist rebels and attempting to sponsor separatist tendencies amongst its Pashtun and Baloch populations, going as far back as the s. It has been believed that Pakistan during the s, then under Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoin retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan. The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards.

The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union.

The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets. Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew. But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power.

Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance.

After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks.

India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations. India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan.

The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action".

Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed. Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government.

Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India. A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It is, Chatterjee argues, simply arbitrary. Different people face different enforcement patterns. In practice, their focus is on legal non- enforcement. In fact, politicians who press for consistent patterns of enforcement are described as unpopular.

Chatterjee writes about India. But, as noted above, the patterns he describes are not at all unfamiliar in Pakistan. Conceptually, democracy is not defined by any particular type of law: That law is made and remade over time owing to pressures associated with elections. Democracy may involve the distribution of patronage goods including religious personal laws. But, conceptually, democracy is not in the business of providing privileged access to legal non-enforcement.

Democracy is not a synonym for despotism. Indian officials worked hard to prevent Zia from using the Afghan crisis as an opportunity to alter the regional balance of power by acquiring advanced weapons from the United States.

India–Pakistan relations

In addition, Indira Gandhi attempted to avoid antagonizing the Soviet Union, democratic elements in Pakistan, and the substantial anti-Pakistan lobby within India. These largely secret efforts culminated in the visit of Minister of External Affairs P. Narasimha Rao to Pakistan in Juneduring which time he declared publicly that India was "unequivocally committed to respect Pakistan's national unity, territorial integrity, and sovereign equality" as well as its right to obtain arms for self-defense.

Despite the setback suffered when the United States and Pakistan announced a new security and military assistance program, regular meetings took place between high Indian and Pakistani officials.

These meetings were institutionalized in late in the Indo-Pakistan Joint Commission, which included subcommissions for trade, economics, information, and travel. In the mid- and late s, India-Pakistan relations settled into a pattern of ups and downs.

Despite the signing of an economic and trade agreement, little progress was made in concluding a comprehensive, long-term economic agreement to have nondiscriminatory bilateral trade.

IR: India-Pakistan/Indo-Pak Relations {UPSC CSE/IAS, SSC CGL/CHSL, Bank (IBPS/SBI)}

The government's White Paper on the Punjab Agitation stated that India's strength, unity, and secularism were targets of attack. The December visit of Zia to India, during which both sides agreed not to attack each other's nuclear facilities, ushered in a brief phase of cordiality, in which another agreement expanding trade was signed.

democracy india and pakistan relationship

The cordiality evaporated in earlywith further Indian unhappiness over Pakistan's alleged interference in Punjab and the bungled Pakistani handling of the terrorist seizure of a Pan American airliner in which many Indians died. For its part, Pakistan was disturbed by anti-Muslim riots in India, and Zia accused India of assisting the political campaign of Benazir Bhutto. Between November and Februaryfirst India, then Pakistan, conducted provocative military maneuvers along their border that raised tensions considerably.

The crisis atmosphere was heightened when Pakistan's premier nuclear scientist Abdul Qadir Khan revealed in a March interview that Pakistan had manufactured a nuclear bomb. Although Khan later retracted his statement, India stated that the disclosure was "forcing us to review our option. The sudden death of Zia in an air crash in August and the assumption of the prime ministership by Benazir Bhutto in December after democratic elections provided the two countries with an unexpected opportunity to improve relations.

Rajiv Gandhi's attendance at the SAARC summit in Islamabad in December permitted the two prime ministers to establish a personal rapport and to sign three bilateral agreements, including one proscribing attacks on each other's nuclear facilities. Despite the personal sympathy between the two leaders and Bhutto's initial emphasis on the Simla Accord as the basis for warmer bilateral ties, domestic political pressures, particularly relating to unrest in Sindh, Punjab, and Kashmir effectively destroyed the chances for improved relations in and For her part, Bhutto backed away from her comments on the Simla Accord by continuing to press the Kashmir issue internationally, and Indian public opinion forced Rajiv Gandhi and his successor, V.

Singh, to take a hard line on events relating to Kashmir. In the early s, Indian-Pakistani relations remained troubled despite bilateral efforts and changes in the international environment. High-level dialogue on a range of bilateral issues took place between foreign ministers and prime ministers at the UN and at other international meetings.

However, discussions over confidence-building measures, begun in the summer of as a response to the Kashmir confrontation, were canceled in June following mutual expulsions of diplomats for alleged espionage activities. Nevertheless, negotiations concerning the Siachen Glacier resumed in November after a hiatus of three years.

democracy india and pakistan relationship