Sep 27, SURVEY: Tell us what you think about the summaries! Partnerships with countries in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The European Union (EU) has concluded bilateral partnership and rural development, increasing trade in agricultural, fisheries and Official Journal. Nov 25, The economic union envisages greater trade liberalisation, the disasters and meteorological data to optimise agriculture potential of a portal and e- magazine-journal focused on international affairs and India and The European Union Milestones Strategic Dialogue: The of India-US relations. Sep 1, This article examines the EU's trade and development policy from the s to the present day. European Journal of International Law, Volume 18, Issue 4, ranging from its Common Agricultural Policy, its Generalized System of . the non-European countries and territories which have special relations.
Eighty per cent of French exports of processed groundnut oil, refined sugar, cotton textiles and soap, and over 50 per cent of French exports of silks, clothing, cement and metal goods went to the colonies. In the longer term, changes in the structure of French industry also left the colonies in a weak situation. For France, imports of basic manufacturing materials were becoming available more cheaply from non-colonial sources, 12 and the colonies were also becoming much less important as markets for newer French industries.
In higher value sectors of transport equipment, chemicals and manufactured goods, it was other developed countries, and Germany in particular, that were the natural export markets. France is not only a European territory, she is not only a European nation; she is also an African nation, a musulman power, and her citizens embrace not only many religions but many races. The French Union forms a whole, a single legal conception.
Fortunately, such a solution came to hand in the form of the European Economic Community. France saw that if the colonies could be brought into this arrangement, they could gain an enlarged and protected export market for their products, and with luck France might additionally be able to shift the direct financial burden of maintaining them to its new European partners.
This idea was obviously more attractive to France than to the other European partners in this project, and so France put forward a number of propositions to win them over. It suggested broadening the scope of association to include some but not all of their territories, 16 it offered new colonial export markets for Community exports, and, though less convincingly, it attempted issue linkage, claiming that new competition from Germany would leave it unable to afford the colonies.
Algeria [is the] foundation of the large Franco-African whole [ensemble francoafricain] of a new type, based on a community of cultural, economic, strategic, and political interests, which is in preparation. More than a Franco-African whole, it is a Euro-African whole [ensemble eurafricain] which we must talk about. The advantages of new market access in the colonies seemed minor, given that a number of these colonies were in any case required under international treaties to trade on a non-discriminatory basis 19 and that French interests would most likely continue to be protected under unregulated marketing arrangements.
Belgium took 40 per cent of its tropical products from its colonies, but the others would be forced to abandon their traditional and cheaper suppliers of these products. Germany and the Netherlands were vigorously opposed, and Luxemburg and Italy were no more than lukewarm.
Agreement was reached on 20 Februaryand the Treaty of Rome, signed a month later, essentially reflected French demands. The Member States agree to associate with the Community the non-European countries and territories which have special relations with Belgium, France, Italy and the Netherlands.
The purpose of association shall be to promote the economic and social development of the countries and territories and to establish close economic relations between them and the Community as a whole. In accordance with the principles set out in the Preamble to this Treaty, association shall serve primarily to further the interests and prosperity of the inhabitants of these countries and territories in order to lead them to the economic, social and cultural development to which they aspire.
As far as trade was concerned, the association built on the system of market access established for the EEC Member States in the EEC Treaty, which sought to achieve internal free trade within the EEC over a transitional period of 12 years by gradually reducing duties and quantitative restrictions.
This was significant, as it was primarily by these means that the position of French products in the associates' market would be secured. These included coffee and cocoa, to the disadvantage of Brazil, Colombia, Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda, and bananas, to the disadvantage of Ecuador, Honduras and Costa Rica. To lessen the blow, some EEC Member States were permitted to import reduced-duty products from third countries.
Italy and the Benelux countries were permitted to import a quota of reduced-duty coffee and Germany was permitted to import its traditional quantities of duty-free bananas. But these territories were not wholly abandoned: All of these were also named in Declarations of Intent on eventual association. Guinea was the first to do so in44 followed in January by Senegal and Mali, and the process was complete by But the significance of these institutions was more cosmetic than real.
The political institutions had little to decide, as most of the important matters were regulated in the treaty, 49 and the power differential between the EEC and the associates made it unlikely that recourse would often be had to the judicial tribunal — an impression borne out by the complete inactivity of this institution over the last 40 years.
At German and Dutch insistence, 50 the external tariff was reduced on imports of tropical products, 51 and the associates were compensated by immediate duty-free access on the same products. On the other side, there was also — at least in theory — a strong measure of liberalization. In modern times, reciprocity in trade relations is justified on both economic and political economy grounds: These arguments were advanced not just by France, but also by Francophone Africa, and by Senegal in particular.
Even with reverse preferences, prices were on average substantially higher in the associated countries than in comparable countries that did not grant preferences to European producers.
With minor exceptions, trade between the Community and the associates did not involve products competitive in their respective markets a fact that is also reflected in the fact that their safeguards clauses 67 were never invoked. And both sides did this: The revenue implications for the associates are clear, but even for a number of Community Member States they were significant: While the Community was relatively relaxed about the revenue duties imposed by the associates, this feeling was not mutual.
This was with the specific aim of adapting subsidized products to world prices as well as for commodity price stabilization.
However this arrangement may have worked for individual products, it did not improve total trade with the associates. Part of this was for contextual reasons. In the decade following the establishment of the EEC, developing countries as a group became less important. Ubiquity Press books and articles are typeset by SiliconChips and Diacritech. This process involves them receiving the book and book associated metadata and contacting the authors to finalise the layout.
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